Alexander Davis admitted he could be an angry and punitive man. He took part in a Ph.D. searching for some of the world's best covered fishermen in the deep ocean. These animals are very interested in not being found due to their ability to absorb more than 99.9 percent of the light that falls on their skin.
To find and educate the black fishermen, Mr. Davis, who teaches biology at Duke University, said he relied heavily on luck. "Basically we throw in nets and see what we get," he said. "You never know what you want to grow up with."
When he and his friends came in with cash, they were heavily loaded. In a letter published Thursday in Biology, they said they insulted the first white animal in the sea, and some of the darkest animals ever found: 16 species of very long and very black sea fish , they show regular silhouettes – a vacuum-absorbing void that seems to disrupt the fabric of time.
"It's like looking at a black hole," he said. Davis.
To qualify as black-and-white, an object must reflect less than 0.5 percent of light. Some celestial birds manage this, retreating as little as 0.05 percent, as well as certain types of odors (0.06 percent) and spiders (0.35 percent). Parts of the engine have allowed humans to experiment with everything from composite materials, some of which reflect only 0.045 percent of the light emitted. ("Black" paper, on the other hand, restores 10 percent of its light bulb.)
Now, it looks like the fish is close to winning them all.
One species has been identified in the paper, which is a biological fish in the genome & # 39; Oneirodes & # 39 ;, reflecting 0.044 to 0.051 percent of the deep-sea light it encounters. The other 99.95 percent, Mr. Davis and his teammates are found, they are lost in the swallowing light lab until they are completely destroyed.
"I can always argue with bird people online," said Kory Evans, a fish biologist at Rice University who was not part of the study. "I said, I caused this sea fish to be as black as your birds in heaven."
Dark skin can appear hundreds or thousands of feet underground, where sunlight does not reach. But thanks to D.I.Y. Lighted by bioluminescent animals, this part of the ocean can actually "burn like the sky," said Prosanta Chakrabarty, a fish biologist at Louisiana State University who was not involved in the study.
Birds, squirrels and spiders tend to use darker shades in contrast, making them a more vibrant color palette against the back. Some fish can do this, too. But in a world where sea explorers often use their homes to hunt for prey, blacks can continue to act as a lost cause for swimmers who don’t want to be seen, Drs. Evans said.
To accelerate how marine fish manage stress-free clothing, the researchers took skin samples from nine species of black fish and analyzed them under a microscope.
Like many other animals, including humans, fishing for their melanin skin, is a small light source that absorbs and stores microscopic components called melanosomes. Fish that are usually discolored are torn into cracks, even in layers rich in protein & # 39; collagen & # 39 ;. Any light on the head-melanin is irritating, while the light that loses its reputation returns to the spectator.
To preserve their culture, the researchers found, very dark-skinned fishermen were roaming their shoes. This allows them to accumulate melanosomes like packaged rice grains. When light is associated with connectivity, what is not absorbed is diverted to one side – directly through another melanosome.
Extremely black birds, squirrels and spiders do the same thing, but they may work less efficiently, says Karen Osborn, a zoologist at the National Museum of Natural History in Smithsonian and author began the study, rather than using it. in the same structure – melanosomes – to absorb and absorb light, just as fish do, the animals on the ground are encapsulated in melanin causing tumors, boxes or scales to recur in back and forth photographs. What the underwater fish does "is a much simpler process," Drs. Osborn said.
Anela Choy, a marine researcher at the institute & # 39; Scripps Institution of Oceanography & # 39; in San Diego without involvement could be a life-saving grace for the living. the study.
Below, Drs. "Everything depends on survival: eating, not eating and helping yourself," Choy said.
Some residents of the most remote areas of the sea may be even darker than what Mr. Davis and his friends woke him up.
"I wouldn't be surprised if I haven't found the black fish in the sea yet," Drs. Chakrabarty said.