Although the parameters are not always determined, the responses of the immune system to disease can be divided into three categories: type 1, which injects certain viruses and bacteria into our cells; Type 2, which fights parasites such as worms that do not invade cells; and type 3, following fungi and bacteria that can live outside the cells. Each branch uses different cytokines to stimulate different types of molecular fighters.
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Frequently Asked Questions
Updated August 12, 2020
Can I travel within the United States?
- Many states have travel restrictions, and many of them are taking active steps to enforce those restrictions, such as paying fines or asking visitors to stay in isolation for 14 days. Here is a list of the most up-to-date statewide sanctions. In general, travel increases your chances of catching and spreading the virus, as it depends on you meeting more people than staying in your “pool”. “Staying at home is the best way to protect yourself and others from Covid-19,” C.D.C. said. But if you do travel, be careful. If you can, drive. If you have to fly, be careful in choosing your aircraft. But be aware that airlines are taking serious steps to clean up the air and limit your risk.
I have immune cells. Have I been vaccinated?
- At the moment, that seems to be, at least a few months. There have been scary accounts of people being tortured in what appears to be a second installment of & # 39; Covid-19 & # 39 ;. But experts say these patients may have a way of preventing the disease, with the virus taking a gradual amount of weeks to months after initial exposure. People infected with & # 39; coronavirus & # 39; These cells normally produce a preventive called antibodies, which are proteins in response to infection prevention attributes. These cells can be in the body for only two to three months, which seems to be a concern, but this is normal when a serious outbreak occurs, he said. Michael Mina, a defense scientist at Harvard University. It is possible to recover from the coronavirus again, but it is unlikely that there may be a small window of time from the initial infection or people who become ill the second time.
I am a small business owner. Can I have stability?
- The stimulus bills introduced in March will help millions of small businesses in the United States. Eligible are businesses and charities with fewer than 500 employees, including sole proprietors, independent and independent contractors. Some large companies and some industries are also eligible. Assistance provided, administered by the Small Business Administration, includes a paycheck Protection Program and a Financial Disaster Injury program. But many of the documents have not yet been released. Even those who have received help are confused: The rules are broken, and some are stuck with money they do not know how to use. Many small business owners get less than they expected or did not hear at all.
What are my rights if I worry about going back to work?
What will the school look like in September?
- It is unlikely that many schools will return to the regular schedule this fall, requiring the flow of online learning, the release of child care and the cessation of working days to continue. California's two largest school districts – Los Angeles and San Diego – announced July 13 that teaching will be a long way in the fall, citing concerns that coronavirus infections in their areas pose a significant risk to students and teachers. . Altogether, the two districts enroll about 825,000 students. They are the biggest in the country so far leaving plans to even partially return to the classrooms when they reopen in August. In other districts, the solution will not be complete or empty. Many systems, including the largest in the country, New York City, are making integrated plans that involve some days spent in classes and other days online. There is currently no national policy on this, so contact your local school system to see what is happening in your community.
People with moderate cases of & # 39; Covid-19 & # 39; takes what appears to be the most plausible form, focusing on answers of type 1, the Iwasaki team found. Patients who are struggling to recover, on the other hand, tend to inject an extraordinary number of types 2 and 3 responses, which are a “loose,” type. Iwasaki said. "As far as we know, there is no humiliation involved."
Itâ & # x20AC; & # x2122; s like the defensive system is struggling & # 39; Dr. Wherry said.
This distinction also seems to extend to the control of B cells and T cells – two types of defense fighters that always need to negotiate to organize their attacks. Certain types of T cells, for example, are important for the synthesis of B cells in the production of immune cells.
Last month, Drs. Wherry and colleagues published a paper on scientific findings that, in many patients with severe Covid-19, the virus somehow led to the separation of the two cohesive communities. It's too early to tell for sure, but maybe something about the coronavirus prevents cells B and T from "talking to each other," he said.
These studies suggest that treatment of adverse cases of Covid-19 may require the restoration of immunity – as a drug, which can restore the body's balance and revitalize the communication lines of bamboozled cells. This type of treatment may even focus on a part of the patient's body that has a severe reaction to the virus, Drs. Blish said: "Those who have already released cytokines."
But that is as easy as it sounds. "The challenge here is trying to slow down the response, without completely controlling it, and getting the right answers," he said. August said. It is difficult to fix that.
Time is also important. Make an early patient with irritable immune symptoms, who may not respond strongly; Give it a long time, and the worst damage may have already been done. The same is true of treatments designed to supplement the initial response to coronavirus infection, such as interferon-based treatment, Drs. Blish said. These can eliminate the & # 39; pathogen & # 39; if given shortly after infection – or they are badly removed from the body if administered for too long a delay.